Capra is a research group at Cornell in the Computer Science and Electrical and Computer Engineering departments. Our research studies abstractions and efficiency through the interaction of programming languages and computer architecture.

Check out our ongoing research below or read news about the group. If you’re a Cornell undergraduate student, consider working with us!

Hardware Accelerator Generation

Calyx, an Infrastructure for Hardware Accelerator Compilers

We’re designing Calyx, an intermediate language (IL) and infrastructure for building compilers that generate hardware accelerators. Calyx works by representing both hardware-like structure and software-like control together. You can try Calyx in your browser.

Dahlia, a Language for Predictable Accelerator Design

High-level synthesis (HLS) tools can translate C-like languages to hardware accelerators, but the semantic gap between software and hardware can yield unpredictable performance and semantics. Dahlia adds a substructural type system to model hardware resources and their constraints to statically reject HLS designs that make unpredictable area-latency trade-offs. You can try Dahlia in your browser.

Graphics Programming

Gator: Geometry Types

We have identified a new category of geometry bugs that arise in graphics programming and other domains that have to deal with matrices and vectors. They arise when programmers lose track of the coordinate systems and reference frames that underpin the computation. Gator is a language for GPU shading with a type system that can eliminate geometry bugs and rule them out by generating correct-by-construction transformation code.

Braid, a Safe Heterogeneous Language for Real-Time Graphics

Braid is a programming language for heterogeneous programming, where a single source program targets different hardware units. We have applied it to real-time graphics programming on CPU–GPU systems. Braid compiles to WebGL, so you can try it out in your browser.

Search-Based Compilation for Digital Signal Processing

Digital signal processors (DSPs) are ubiquitous and energy efficient, but making them fast requires an expert programmer. The difficulty stems from their complex vector instruction sets and simple, in-order pipelines. To get the best results, programmers must carefully pack and move data in vector registers to enable compact execution. Diospyros uses equality saturation to automatically discover efficient vector packing schemes.

Vision/System Co-Design

Customizing JPEG Compression for Computer Vision

Image compression formats like JPEG are ubiquitous in computer vision, but they were designed for human perception—not for modern vision algorithms. We examine the potential for customizing JPEG compression for specific vision tasks, simultaneously improving compression the ratio and the accuracy.

Exploiting Temporal Redundancy for Live Computer Vision

Vision accelerators that run on real-time video process nearly identical frames at every time step. This project introduces activation motion compensation, a technique for approximately incremental acceleration of computer vision. It works by measuring motion in the input video and translating it to motion in the intermediate results of convolutional neural networks.

A Vision Mode for Efficient Image Capture

Most camera systems are optimized for photography, so they waste time and energy when they capture images for computer vision. This project designs a vision mode for cameras and their associated signal processing logic that saves energy by producing lower-quality, less-processed image data.

Archived Research



PhD & MS Students

Undergrad & MEng

  • Alma Thaler
  • Andrei Shpilenok
  • Andrii Iermolaiev
  • Jasper Liang
  • Richard Wang
  • Vivi Ye
  • YooNa Chang
  • YoungSeok (Alex) Na


  • Jenna Edwards Program Manager


  • Aditi Kabra BS 2019
  • Alex Renda BS 2018
  • Alex Wong MEng 2019
  • Apurva Koti BS 2020
  • Arthur Wang MEng 2018
  • Chris Gyurgyik BS 2021
  • Daniel Sainati BS & MEng 2018
  • Edwin Peguero MS 2021
  • Evan Su MEng 2018
  • Harrison Goldstein BS & MEng 2018
  • Henry Liu BS & MEng 2020
  • Horace He BS 2020
  • Irene Yoon BS 2019
  • Jacob Delgado-López visitor, University of Puerto Rico
  • Karen Zhang BS 2021
  • Katy Voor BS 2020
  • Kenneth Fang BS 2020
  • Kimberly Baum BS 2020
  • Mark Buckler PhD 2019
  • Maya Ifekauche visitor, Auburn University
  • Patrick LaFontaine BS 2021
  • Paul Joo BS 2021
  • Samuel Thomas BS 2020
  • Shiyu Wang MEng 2018
  • Theodore Bauer BS 2019
  • Yinnon Sanders BS 2019


Alexa’s paper on verifying Rust’s dyn Trait construct was accepted to ICSE SEIP 2022!

Our paper about in-progress work based on Calyx was accepted to WOSET.

Check out the preprint of our MICRO 2021 paper on software-defined vector machines.

Our paper on software-defined vector processing was accepted to MICRO 2021!

Our collaboration with UW on Reticle, a compiler for exploiting modern FPGA resources, was conditionally accepted to PLDI 2021.

We’re organizing LATTE, a new ASPLOS workshop about PL and compilers problems in accelerator design. Submit 2-page position papers by February 25.

See a video of Adrian’s talk at the HSC Seminar at UC Santa Cruz on FuTIL (a.k.a. Calyx).

Our papers on Diospyros and [Calyx][] were accepted to ASPLOS 2021!